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高考英语阅读技巧(上)

阅读理解题在英语考试中占了很大一部分,今天朗阁教育告诉你,阅读理解怎样不失分。

一、常见题型分析

(一)主旨大意题

主旨大意题在阅读理解试题中所占比例及难度都相当大。主旨大意是作者在文章中要表达的主要内容,是全文的核心,作者在文章中努力通过各种细节信息来阐明中心话题。因此,把握主旨大意对于正确理解全文具有重要意义。要找出主旨大意,应采用快速阅读法浏览全文,阅读时要注意抓住表达中心思想的句子。文章不同,中心句在文章中的位置也就不同,但一般情况下阅读时应特别留意文章的开头、结尾及各个段落的首句和尾句,因为它们往往包含文章的中心议题。

常见的命题方式:

What is the main idea of this passage?

What dose this passage mainly concern?

The main theme of this passage is_____________

The main point of the passage is___________

Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

The title that best expresses the theme of the passage is______

The purpose of the writer writing this passage is_____

Which of the following best describes the passage as a whole?

文章主题常常可以通过文章的写作方法来体现,有以下几种情况:

1。题句位于句首。主题句出现在文首,开门见山,提出主题,随之用细节来解释、支撑主题句所表达的主题思想。这是英语中最常见的演绎写作法。2。主题句位于段末。主题句出现在文章结尾是作者采用了先摆事实,后作结论的手法。这种段落称作归纳型段落。这是英语中最常见的归纳写作法。3.主题句首尾呼应。为突出主题,作者先提出主题,结尾时再次点出主题,这种首尾呼应的写作方法也较为多见。通常,前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复,后面的表述往往有进一步的引申或发展的意味。4。主题句位于段落的中间。主题句出现在文章的中间,通常前面只提出问题,文章的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文中导出,而后又作进一步的解释、说明或发展。5。主题句隐含在段意之中。全文没有明确的主题句。其中心思想包含在各个句子中,在这种情况下,读者要把所有已知的细节综合起来,进行逻辑推理,概括归纳出主题句。

【典例1】 The global energy crisis is approaching. What can we do? Here are some steps you can take。

Cooling puts the greatest stress on your summer energy bill and the power grid(电网). Just as a tune-up for your car can improve your gas mileage, a yearly tune-up of your heating and cooling system can improve efficiency and comfort. Clean or replaces filters monthly or as needed。

……

Drive the car that gets better gas mileage whenever possible if you own more than one vehicle. If you drive 12,500 miles a year, switching 10 percent of your trips from a car that gets 20 miles per gallon to one that gets 30 mpg will save you more than £65 per year。

Carpool. The average U.S. commuter(乘车上班族) could save about £260 a year by sharing cars twice a week with two people in a car that gets 20.1 mpg—assuming the three passengers share the cost of gas. (2008·安徽卷)

This passage is mainly about ________。

A. energy-saving tips B. fuel-saving tips

C. do-it-yourself tips D. environment-protecting tips

【解析】本文主要介绍了如何节约能源。本文是一篇科普文章,主题很明显,文章一开始就点明了主题,接下来整篇文章都是围绕如何save energy展开,而save fuel仅仅只是其中的一部分。故选A。针对主旨大意类题目,应采用快速阅读法(Skimming)浏览全文。在阅读时,应特别注意文章的开头、结尾及段落的段首句和段尾句,因为他们往往名包含文章的中心议题。

【典例2】 Domestic (驯养的) horses now pull ploughs, race in the Kentucky Derby, and carry police. But early horses weren’t tame (驯服的) enough to perform these kinds of tasks. Scientists think the first interactions humans had with horses were far different from those today。

Thousands of years ago, people killed the wild horses that lived around them for food. Over time, people began to catch the animals and raise them. This was the first step in domestication。

……

The domestication of horses has had great effects on societies. For example, horse were important tools in the advancement of modern agriculture. Using them to pull ploughs and carry heavy loads allowed people to farm more efficiently. Before they were able to ride horses, humans had to cross land on foot. Riding horses allowed people to travel far greater distance in much less time. That encouraged populations living in different areas to interact with one another. The new from of rapid transportation helped cultures spread around the world. (2008·北京卷)

The passage is mainly about _______。

A. why humans domesticated horses

B. how humans and horses needed each other

C. why horses came in different shapes and sizes

D. how human societies and horses influenced each other

【解析】本文以时间为顺序,记叙了人类对马的驯化以及马对人类的生活所产生的重要影响。本题考查主旨大意。前四段说明,人类驯养了野马,使得马的种类繁多,这是人类社会对马的影响;最后一段说明,马作为交通工具加速了人类文化传播的进程。故文章的主题应是D所说的内容。此主题句出现在文章的最后一段。如果文章没有明确的主题句,文章的中心思想往往包含在各个段落中,考生可采取提纲挈领的方法,通过分析细节把文章的要点归纳出来,概括出全文的中心思想。

选择标题属主旨大意题,是阅读理解题常考的题型之一。那么怎么样选择文章的标题?选择文章标题属深层次理解题,它要求考生在通读全文的基础上,认真分析主人公的特定心态、文章大意及作者写作意图,在此基础上,所选出的标题还应做到概括性、针对性、醒目性的有机结合。

1。概括性原则 要求标题应在最大限度上覆盖全文,囊括文章的主要内容,体现文章的主旨。标题实际上是文章主题的一种确认方式。前面我们提到,通过寻找主题句,往往很容易确定短文的标题。但大多数文章的主题句并不明显,需要我们通过体会字里行间蕴含的意思从整体上把握文章的主旨,从全局的角度概括归纳出文章的标题。要防止本末倒置,主次不分,以点代面,以偏概全。

2。针对性原则 针对性原则是对标题外延的一种界定。概括性原则要求文章标题包括文章的主要内容。但如果标题过大,就违背了针对性原则、针对性原则要求标题不能太过于概括,而是要直接指向文章的主旨。即标题不能太大也不能太小。要量体裁衣,大小适度。

3。醒目性原则 标题是文章的点睛之笔,是文章的灵魂。标题的好坏往往会影响文章的可读性。读者往往从标题上决定文章的阅读取舍。故标题往往比较醒目,甚至比较离奇,目的是为了吸引读者的注意力,唤起读者对文章阅读的兴趣。所以在标题选择的过程中,在满足概括性和针对性的条件下,还要考虑标题的醒目性。

(二)推理判断题

推理判断题是指在理解原文字面意义的基础上,通过对语篇逻辑关系的分析和细节的暗示,作出一定的判断和推理,从而得出文章的深层意义及隐含意义的过程。推理判断题在阅读中属于难度较高的题型,通常占总题数的15%-30%。它主要考查考生理清上下文逻辑关系的能力以及考生的识别能力。推理判断题所涉及的内容可能是文中某一句话,也可能是某几句话,要求考生在遵循原文意义的基础上,对文章字面信息进行分析、挖掘、逻辑推理,揭示其深层含义。常出现的推理题有逻辑推理,知识推理等。这类考题中常出现的词有:infer, imply, suggest, indicate, conclude, learn from, probably, most likely, can, could, might, may等。

常见的命题方式:

From paragraph one we can infer that_________

What can be inferred from the passage?

We can infer from the text that…?

What can we learn from…?

We can conclude from the passage that_______

The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that______

The author implies that_______

This passage would most likely be found in______

The author’s attitude toward…is_________?

推理判断题要在阅读理解整体语篇的基础上,掌握文章的真正内涵。(1)要吃透文章的字面意思,从字里行间捕捉有用的提示和线索,这是推理的前提和基础;(2)要对文字的表面信息进行挖掘加工,由表入里,由浅入深,从具体到抽象,从特殊到一般,通过分析、综合、判断等,进行深层处理,符合逻辑地推理。不能就事论事,断章取义,以偏概全;(3)要忠实于原文,不能主观臆想,更不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点;(4)要把握句、段之间的逻辑关系,了解语篇的结构。要体会文章的基调,揣摩作者的态度,摸准逻辑发展的方向,悟出作者的弦外之音。

【典例1】 Michael Fish may soon be replaced as a weather forecaster by something truly fishier—the shark(鲨鱼)。

Research by a British biology student suggests that sharks could be used to predict storms。

Lauren Smith, 24, is close to completing her study on shark’s ability to sense pressure。

If her studies prove the theory, scientists may be able to monitor the behaviour of sharks to predict bad weather。

It has been discovered that a shark senses pressure using hair cells in its balance system。

At the Bimini Shark Lab in the Bahamas, Miss Smith fixed hi-tech sensors to sharks to record pressure and temperature, while also tracking them using GPS (Global Positioning System) technology。

In Aberdeen, she was able to study the effects of tidal(潮汐的) and temperature changes on dogfish—none of which were harmed. She also used a special lab which can mimic(模拟) oceanic pressure changes caused by weather fronts。

She is due to complete her study and graduate later this year. She says she will be looking for a job which will give her the chance to enrich her experience of shark research. (2008·天津卷)

44. The passage is most probably taken from _____。

A. a short-story collection

B. a popular science magazine

C. a research paper

D. a personal diary

45. What do we learn from the first four paragraph of the passage?

A. Sharks may be used to predict bad weather。

B. Sharks’ behaviour can be controlled。

C. Michael Fish is not qualified for his job。

D. Lauren Smith will become a weather forecaster。

如:Mary is due to leave at two o’clock。

【解析】本文为科普类文章,介绍了一位英国生物系学生对于鲨鱼来预测暴风雨的研究。

44. B 推理判断题。本题适宜用排除法。由文章内容来看这是一篇科普文,A、D可删除,由文章的语言来看,并未出现大量的专业术语,可删除C “a research paper”(科研论文)

45. A 推理判断题。由第一段和第四段可知,前四段所要表达的含义为If her studies prove the theory, scientists may be able to monitor the behavior of Sharks to predict bad weather。(科学家们可以通过监视鲨鱼的行为来预测不好的天气”。故A项正确。细节推断题要求学生根据语篇关系,推断具体细节,如时间、地点、人物关系、人物身份、事件等。一般可根据短文提供的信息,或者借助生活常识进行推理判断。解答此类题,不仅需要我们有一定的社会基础知识,而且还需要对细节以及有关背景知识有一个充分的理解。

【典例2】 It had been some time since Jack had seen the old man. College, carrier, and life itself got in the way. In fact, Jack moved clear across the country in pursuit of the dreams. There, in the rush of his busy life, Jack had little time to think about the past and often no time to spend with his wife and son. He was working on his future, and nothing could stop him。

Over the phone, his mother told him, “Mr. Belser died last night. The funeral is Wednesday。” Memories fleshed through his mind like an old newsreel as he sat quietly remembering his childhood days。

Inside he found these words carved: “Jack. Thanks for your time! Harold Belser。”

“Oh. My God! This is the thing he valued most …”

Jack held the watch for a few minutes, then called his assistant and cleared his appointments for the next two days. “Why?” his assistant asked。

“I need some time to spend with my son,” he said. (2008·江苏卷)

69. Why did Jack say he needed some time to spend with his son?

A. He was very tired of his work and wanted to have a good rest。

B. He had promised to spare more time to stay with his son。

C. He had missed his son and his family for days。

D. He came to realize the importance of the time with his family。

【解析】本文属于记叙文,文章由邻居之死而引出一个不容忽视的社会主题:友情、亲情才是最重要的。69. D推理判断题,由文中可知Belser的遗言对Jack触动很大,同时也使他开始领悟到:只有亲人、朋友才是生活中最重要的。因果推断题要求考生根据已知结果推测导致该结果产生的可能原因,考生要准确掌握文章的内涵,理解文章的真正含义。回答推理判断题的试题时,考生一定要牢记,能够直接从文中找到的选项不是正确选项,因为与原文一样的句子不叫推理。只有那些没有在文中直接出现,但根据文中的信息经过推断可以得出的才是符合题意的正确选项。

【典例3】As kids, my friends and I spent a lot of time out in the woods. “The woods” was our part-time address, destination, purpose, and excuse. If I went to a friend’s house and found him not at home, his mother might say, “Oh, he’s out in the woods, ” with a tone(语气) of airy acceptance. It’s similar to the tone people sometimes use nowadays to tell me that someone I’m looking for is on the golf course or at the gym, or even “away from his desk。” For us ten-year-olds, “being out in the woods” was just an excuse to do whatever we feel like for a while。

It was in a tree, too, that our days of fooling around in the woods came to an end. By then some of us has reached seventh grade and had begun the rough ride of adolescence(青春期). In March, the month when we usually took to the woods again after winter, two friends and I set out to go exploring. We climbed a tree, and all of a sudden it occurred to all three of us at the same time that were really were rather big to be up in a tree. Soon there would be the spring dances on Friday evenings in the high school cafeteria. (2008·天津卷)

55. How does the author feel about his childhood?

A. Happy but short. B. Lonely but memorable。

C. Boring and meaningless. D. Long and unforgettable。

【解析】本文描述了小时侯玩耍的“树林”对与“我”和朋友们的意义。主要讲述了我们在“树林”中所从事的活动——探索,以及之后随着年龄的增长,不再去那里的过程。55. A 从全文看,作者在“树林”里过的很愉快,又由最后一段可知,当我们一部分人上了七年级之后。我们在“树林”中的玩耍就结束了。很短暂。因此,正确选项为A。做这一类题时一定注意:1.由表及里地准确把握字里行间的意思,切勿用自己的主观想法或观点代替作者的思想观点。2.要特别注意那些描写环境气氛的语言,以及表达感情、态度观点的词语和作者在文章中的措辞,尤其是感情色彩的形容词。3.能结合自己平时积累的有关英语国家的文化传统、风俗习惯等背景知识来识别评价。