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考研英语语法精解 虚拟语气

“It is(high) time that”或“It seems to be(high) time that...”

  “It is(high) time that”或“It seems to be(high)time that...”用来表示对现在或将来事实的一种假设,从句中动词用过去式。

  例句: If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry. (2001年第1题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,it would be about time...表示与现在相反假设的主句。

  译文: 要是在电影院里的话,我会把头埋在双手间痛哭一场。

  例句: It is time that the world learned the lessons of Aswan.

  (选自1998年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 现在是整个世界从阿斯旺水坝中吸取教训的时候了。

  表示愿望、请求、建议、命令等意义的动词引导的宾语从句

  表示愿望、请求、建议、命令等意义的动词引导宾语从句,从句中动词为(should)+实义动词(原形)。

  这类动词有:advise, suggest, propose, consent, decide, command, demand, desire, insist, move(提议), order, prefer, request, require, recommend, urge, vote(提议), ask, maintain, arrange, intend, direct。

  例句: We desire that the tour leader inform us immediately of any change in plans.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中短语inform sb. of sth.意为“告知某人某事”。

  译文: 我们希望旅游的组织者能立刻告知我们计划的变动。

  例句: NBAC(National Bioethics Advisory Commission) will ask that Clintons 90day ban on federal funds for human cloning be extended indefinitely, and possibly that it be made law. (选自1999年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中that Clintons...及that it be made law是谓语动词ask两并列宾语从句,同时使用了虚拟语气,介词短语on...cloning修饰ban。

  译文: 美国国家生命伦理咨询委员会将要求克林顿总统禁止联邦资金用于克隆人类90天的禁令无限期延长,并且有可能将此立法。

  表示愿望、请求、建议、命令等意义名词的同位语从句或表语从句

  把上述动词变成名词,其后的同位语从句或表语从句的谓语动词仍用(should)+实义动词(原形)虚拟式,其中move的名词由motion替代,其他名词形式为:advice, suggestion, proposal, consent, decision, command, demand, desire, insistence, order, preference, request, requirement, recommendation, urgency, vote, maintenance, arrangement, intention, direction。

  例句: Jean Wagners most enduring contribution to the study of AfroAmerican poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that it be analyzed in a religious...是insistence的同位语从句,be前省略了should, as well as...是介词短语。

  译文: 琼·瓦戈纳对美国黑人诗歌研究的最杰出的贡献是,他坚持认为不仅要以世俗的观点也要以宗教的参考框架来分析他们的诗。

  It is/was+形容词+that...主语从句

  在It is/was+形容词+that...主语从句中,从句谓语形式为(should)+实义动词(原形),这些形容词有:

  (一)一般形容词

  如appropriate, essential, important, (im)possible, natural, vital, obligatory, thoughtful, necessary, probable, preferable, urgent等。

  例句: It is essential that people be psychologically able to resist the impact brought about by transition from planned economy to market economy. (1996年第12题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中it是形式主语,that people be psychologically able to resist the impact是真正的主语, brought about作定语修饰the impact, 介词短语from planned economy to market economy修饰transition。

  译文: 人们应该从心理上抵制计划经济向市场经济过渡所带来的影响,这是必需的。

 (二)与一些动词相对应的过去分词或特殊形容词

  如suggested, proposed, consented, decided, commanded, demanded, insisted, moved, ordered, requested, required, recommended, voted, asked, maintained, arranged, intended, directed以及advisable, desirable/desired, preferable, urgent等。

  例句: It is required by law that a husband have to pay the debts of his wife until formal notice is given that he no longer has to pay them.

  分析: 该句是复合句,it是形式主语,真正的主语是that a husband have to pay the debts of his wife, until formal notice is given是一时间状语从句, that he no longer has to pay them在句中作notice的同位语。

  译文: 法律要求,丈夫必须为妻子偿还债务直到正式通知不再偿还为止。

  例句: When Edison died, it was proposed that the American people turn off all power in their homes, streets, and factories for several minutes in honor of this great man.(1997年第12题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句是一主语从句,其中it是形式主语,that the American people turn off all power...是真正的主语。

  译文: 爱迪生去世时,有人建议国人把家庭、街道和工厂所有的电源关掉几分钟来纪念这位伟人。

  (三)表示惊讶、厌恶、不解等意义的形容词

  如amazing, surprising, astonishing, interesting, odd, strange, absurd, shocked, sorry, ridiculous, incredible, annoying, astonished等。另外,此结构中形容词也可换成名词,如It is a pity/shame that...以及It is no wonder that...。

  例句: It is ridiculous that a man like him should destroy his environment.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 像他那样的人居然会破坏环境真是可笑。

  lest等连词引导的目的状语从句或条件状语从句

  连词lest, in order that, for fear that, in case引导的目的状语从句或条件状语从句,从句中的谓动词用(should)+实义动词或系动词(原形)。

  例句: What has happened is that people can not confess fully to their dreams, as early and openly as once they could, lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar.

  (选自2000年Text 5)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that people can not confess fully to their dreams在句中作表语, as early and openly as作状语修饰could, lest后引导一原因状语从句。

  译文: 如今,人们不能像以前那样轻松而公开地坦白自己的理想,唯恐别人认为自己爱出风头、贪得无厌,甚至是庸俗。

  expect, believe等动词用于否定或疑问形式

  expect, believe, think, suspect等动词用于否定或疑问形式时,其后的宾语从句常用(should)+实义动词或系动词(原形)。

  例句: He has not put forward unquestioned claims so consistently that he doesnt believe that those industrial and business management should do as they were told.

  分析: 该句是复合句,so...that he doesnt believe...是一结果状语从句,that those...should do as they were told作believe的宾语,as they were told作状语表示方式。

  译文: 他一直没有提出令人不容置疑的论断,因此他相信那些工商业的管理者不会按照他所说的去做。