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考研英语语法精解 用途句子分类

一、陈述句(Declarative Sentence)

  叙述一项事实的句子称之为陈述句,可以是肯定句,也可以是否定句。

  例句: The capital intended to broaden the export base and secure efficiency gains from international trade was channeled instead of uneconomic import substitution. (2000年第26题)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中分词短语intended to...and secure...international trade作后置定语修饰the capital,主干部分为the capital was channeled。channel作动词,意为“输送,引导”。

  译文: 本来用于扩大出口基地从而获得国际贸易效益的资金却用到了非经济进口贸易中去。

  例句: Creating a “European identity” that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice. (2005年第49题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句为Creating a “European identity” is no easy task and demands a strategic choice,定语从句that respects the different...修饰European identity,另一定语从句which go to make up...修饰cultures and traditions。

  译文: 不同文化和传统把欧洲大陆编织成一个整体,要创造出一种尊重这些不同文化和传统的“欧洲特色”绝非易事,需要人们做出战略性选择。

  二、疑问句(Interrogative Sentence)

  用来提出疑问的句子称为疑问句,包括一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、反义疑问句。

  (一)一般疑问句(General Question)

  可以用yes或no回答的疑问句称为一般疑问句,句中的助动词或情态动词置于主语前,形成倒装语序。在有些情况下,如想表示猜测、惊讶、怀疑时,可用正常语序。

  例句: According to what you have just said, am I to understand the new post carries no responsibility with it at all? (1998年第29题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,the new post carries no responsibility...在句中作understand的宾语,同时what you have just said也作介词短语according to的宾语。

  译文: 根据你所说,我是不是该理解为做这项新工作根本不需要任何责任感?

  例句: Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters insisted that we didnt know for sure? (选自2005年Text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句为Do you remember all those years,when引导的定语从句修饰all those years, but在定语从句中连接两个并列宾语从句。

  译文: 你还记得科学家们争论说吸烟会致人死亡,而那些怀疑者却坚信我们对此无法得出定论的那些年月吗?

  (二)特殊疑问句(Special Question)

  用特殊疑问词如who(m),whose,which,what,why,where,when,how就句中某一部分提出疑问的句子称为特殊疑问句,语序为疑问词加一般疑问句。

  例句: How much of intelligence can be specified, and how much can we learn about it from neurology, genetics, computer science and other fields? (选自2007年Text 2)

  分析: 该句是由and连接的并列句。

  译文: 有多少智力可以量化?我们从神经学、遗传学、计算机科学和其他领域中又能学到多少智力呢?

  例句: If you know what the trouble is, why dont you help them to rectify the situation? (1997年第30题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,what the trouble is作从句中谓语动词know的宾语。

  译文: 既然你知道问题所在,那为什么不帮助他们摆脱目前的困境呢?

  如果疑问词作主语或主语的修饰语时,则用陈述语序。如:

  例句: When discussing the issue of unemployment, whose argument is based on the fact?

  分析: 该句是复合句,前半部分的完整形式应为when we are discussing...。

  译文: 如果讨论失业问题,有谁的观点是以事实为依据的呢?

  (三)选择疑问句(Alternative Question)

  提出两种或两种以上的情况让对方选择的疑问句称为选择疑问句,常用or连接两个一般疑问句的形式构成,后一问句常用省略式。

  例句: Which do you prefer,rose or lilac(紫丁香)?

  Did her father travel in France or in Italy last summer?

  (四)反义疑问句(Tag Question)

  置于陈述句之后,对陈述句所叙述事实提出相反的疑问,这种疑问句称为反义疑问句,形式如下:

  ①肯定陈述句+否定简略问句;②否定陈述句+肯定简略问句

  例句: The local people were joyfully surprised to find the price of vegetable no longer fluctuated according to the weather,were not they? (1998年第38题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,the price of vegetable no longer fluctuated...作find的宾语。

  译文: 当地人十分惊喜地发现蔬菜价格不再随天气变化而波动,是吗?

  例句: He does not qualify as a teacher of English as his pronunciation is terrible, does he? (1996年第24题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中后一个as是连词,引导原因状语从句,前一个as是介词,意为“作为……”,与qualify 一起构成短语意为“有资格做……”。

  译文: 他因为发音太差而不够资格当英文教师,是吗?

下面着重讲解考试中常出现的或大家在学习中难以理解的几种反义疑问句的构成。

  1. 陈述句的谓语为am时,简略问句否定式用arent I,肯定式为am I。

  例句: Im very glad to know that my boss has generously agreed to write off my debt in return for certain services, arent I? (1998年第27题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 我很高兴得知老板已慷慨地同意一笔勾销我的债务来作为特殊服务的报酬,是吗?

  例句: Im not a person who is willing to run the risk to leave his child alone at home, am I?

  分析: 该句是复合句,who引导的定语从句修饰a person。

  译文: 我不是那种愿意冒险把孩子单独留在家里的人,是吧?

  2. 陈述句部分有表示否定意义的词,如hardly,scarcely,barely,rarely,nothing,never, seldom,little时,简略问句用肯定形式。

  例句: The professor can hardly find sufficient grounds on which to base his argument in favor of the new theory, can he?

  分析: 该句是简单句,which后的部分修饰grounds,全句相当于The professor can hardly find sufficient grounds on which he bases his argument in favor of the new theory, 其中base sth. on grounds意为“使……具有证据”。

  译文: 那位教授几乎找不到充分证据来支持其新理论的论点,是吧?

  例句: It never rains but it pours,does it? (选自2007年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是简单句,but前后并列两个谓语动词。

  译文: 不鸣则已,一鸣惊人,是吧?

  3. 陈述句部分的主语为something,anything, nothing,everything等指物的不定代词时,简略问句主语用it。

  例句: Everything that you did is just for my staying here, isnt it?

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that you did修饰everything。

  译文: 你所做的任何事情都只是想让我留在这里,对吗?

  又如:Something has gone wrong with my watch, hasn't it?

  4. 陈述句部分的主语为anyone, anybody, no one, nobody, everyone, everybody等指人的不定代词时,简略问句主语为they。

  例句: Everybody loves a fat pay rise,don't they? (选自2005年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 每个人都喜欢大幅加薪,对吧?

  例句: Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction,can they?

  分析: 该句是复合句,cant help but do sth.意为“禁不住,不得不……”,which引导的定语从句修饰the world,即take him into the world。

  译文: 没有人不对科幻小说带给我们的科幻世界着迷,是不?

  5. 情态动词dare,need作实义动词时,简略问句用助动词do/did/does。

  例句: Kids need a range of authentic role models—as opposed to members of their clique, pop stars and vaunted athletes, do they? (选自2007年Part B)

  分析: 该句是简单句,破折号后的内容表示对前面内容的解释,as opposed to... 的完整形式应是as they are opposed to...,they指代models,其中be opposed to sth.意为“与……对照/对比”。

  译文: 孩子们需要有各式各样的真正的榜样——来与他们圈子里的成员对照,与流行歌星和善于自夸的运动员对照,对吗?

  例句: Standing before me, she dares not to look at me in face, does she?

  分析: 该句是简单句,分词短语standing before me在句中作状语,相当于when she is standing...。

  译文: 站在我面前,她不敢直视我,是吗?

  6.陈述句部分为主从复合句时,简略问句的谓语与主句谓语保持一致。

  例句: We can not always count on the wind, so new windmills should be so designed that they can also be driven by water, can we?

  分析: 该句是复合句,从句中so...that是目的状语从句。

  译文: 我们不可能永远依赖风,所以必须设计用水也能驱动的新风车,是吗?

  例句: Conversation becomes weaker in a society that spends so much time listening and being talked to that it has all but lost the will and the skill to speak for itself, doesnt it? (2001年第9题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为conversation becomes weaker in a society,定语从句that spends so much time...修饰a society,在定语从句中又套用一个so...that...的结果状语从句,其中all but为一副词短语,意为“几乎”。

  译文: 如果在一个社会中,人们花费大量时间听别人讲话或让别人对着自己讲话,那么他们就会失去说话的意愿和技能,交谈效果就变得越来越差了,是吧?

  7. let's表示第一人称的祈使句,简略问句的谓语用shall;let us,let me表示第二人称祈使,简略问句的谓语用will。

  例句: Lets go there and ask the way to the Bell Tower together, shall we?

  Let us go there and ask the way to the Bell Tower together, will you?